Volume 1, Number 2 (Summer 2013 2013)                   Clin Exc 2013, 1(2): 97-114 | Back to browse issues page


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Karami M, Hossini E, Shahabi Majd N, Ebrahimzadeh M A, Alemy S. Pharmacological basis of opioids dependence (addiction) and its. Clin Exc . 2013; 1 (2) :97-114
URL: http://ce.mazums.ac.ir/article-1-54-en.html

Abstract:   (12343 Views)
Dependence (addiction) and tolerance is acquired as a result of repeated drug use, its effects will gradually diminish and so after a while the person will tolerate toxic levels of the drug without causing discomfort. Structure of Morphine have five rings with profile A (Aromatic), B (Cyclohexane), C (Cyclohexane), D (Piperidine) and E (Tetrahydrofuran) , all derivatives of morphine which have these cyclic structures would have addictive potential that were compatible with their analgesic effect. Thousands of years ago, opioid compounds were used for pain relief, analgesia, induction of anesthesia (Fentanyl), alternative treatments for addiction, treatment of diarrhea (Diphenoxylate), pulmonary edema and coughs (Codeine). The main side effects of these drugs are suppression of breathing and decreased response to carbon dioxide in the blood that can cause respiratory failure and subsequent death. There are different treatments for addiction including Acupuncture therapy (electro Acupuncture), Sleep therapy, Ooccupational therapy, the placebo-treated through detoxification, Methadone, Buprenorphine or Alpha agonist receptor detoxification, Opioid antagonist drugs and treatment with herbal drugs
Full-Text [PDF 313 kb]   (3670 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Review | Subject: سم شناسی
Received: 2013/08/28 | Accepted: 2013/09/14 | Published: 2013/09/14

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